Kyrgyzstan, a landlocked country located in Central Asia, is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest, and the People’s Republic of China to the east. It is divided into seven provinces, with Bishkek as its capital. Kyrgyzstan’s population is 6.6 million people, made up of more than 90 ethnic groups. The Kyrgyz people, who comprise 72.6% of the country’s population, are traditionally Sunni Muslim. The som is the currency of Kyrgyzstan (KGS), and its official languages are Kyrgyz and Russian.

In 1876, Kyrgyzstan was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire. In 1924, following a brief period of independence after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, the country was designated the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region and a constituent part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). In 1936, the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a republic of the USSR.

The startling events of August 1991 in Moscow triggered great changes in the Republics of the USSR. In Kyrgyzstan, the republic’s Supreme Soviet declared the nation independent of the Soviet Union on 31 August 1991 and, at the same time, scheduled direct presidential elections for October 1991. 

Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. The economy is heavily weighted toward gold export.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization (WTO). Currently, Kyrgyzstan is a party to various international agreements/organisations (more than 70), including the United Nations (UN), WTO, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

PwC does not have a permanent office offering tax advice in Kyrgyzstan. However, PwC Kazakhstan has a dedicated team responsible for providing consulting services relating to Kyrgyzstan issues.


The economy of Kyrgyzstan is heavily dependent on the agricultural sectorCottontobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. According to Healy Consultants, Kyrgyzstan‘s economy relies heavily on the strength of industrial exports, with plentiful reserves of gold, mercury and uranium.[21] The economy also relies heavily on remittances from foreign workers. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government’s stock in enterprises has been sold. Kyrgyzstan’s economic performance has been hindered by widespread corruption, low foreign investment and general regional instability. Despite those issues, Kyrgyzstan is ranked 70th (as of 2019) on the ease of doing business index.


Kyrgyzstan is most famous for snowy peaks, high alpine meadows, broad grasslands filled with the fragrances of plants and flowers, clear mountain rivers, and serene mirrored lakes scattered among the tall peaks. Tourism in Kyrgyzstan introduces you to these wild natural spots, as well as the ancient history of the Silk Road. Any tour in Kyrgyzstan will be a unique, off-the-beaten-track experience that will be sure to create memories for a lifetime.

Kyrgyzstan is at the peak of the Eurasian continent, at the center between east and west. Despite being a relatively small country, Kyrgyzstan is home to three peaks over 7,000 m (22,965 feet). This figure is not very surprising, considering that 94% of the country is over 1,000 m (3,280 feet) above sea level, and 80% is taken up by the rugged Tian Shan range. The best way to experience the variety of climate zones is to simply go hiking, since trails pass through coniferous forests, tundra vegetation, high pastures, and rocky mountain peaks.

Historical Tourism

Historical tourism in Kyrgyzstan spans the events of millennia and digs into layers of half-forgotten history as it resurrects the memory of nomads, settlers and merchants of the past. Step into early history at Cholpon-Ata Petroglyphs, which offer a rare glimpse into the pre-Islamic lifestyle of the Tian Shan Mountain’s early inhabitants. Piece together portions of the past at nomadic museums and interactive demonstrations of yurt constructions, or visit the remains of the medieval captial cities Uzgen and Balasagun. Uncover Kyrgyzstan’s most glorious Silk Road site at Tash Rabat Caravanserai, whose dubious origins and remote mountain locale only add to its mystique and enduring allure. Historical tourism in Kyrgyzstan certainly would not be complete without a look into modern history in Bishkek, Karakol and other cities. Read more about historical tourism in Kyrgyzstan here.


Pre-school and primary education

Pre-school is addressed to children from 3 to 6/7 and is not compulsory. Access to it is limited (net enrollment ratio of 10% in 2005).

Primary school usually starts at 6 or 7, lasts four years and is compulsory. Since 2007, uniforms are required in primary education. The law was pointed out as a source of school-drop out, as the uniform has to be bought by the parents. Teaching quality is sometime described as “poor”: Kyrgyzstan ranked last in reading, mathematics and science at PISA 2006.

Secondary education

Secondary education begins with the basic secondary education, which lasts four years and is compulsory. Students have then the choice between comprehensive and vocation educations.

Comprehensive education is constituted of a two-year curriculum, which grants — if completed — a certificate of completion (“attestat”). The certificate is generally required to join a university.

Vocational education is offered through three kinds of courses: A three-year course mixing vocational and general education and preparing for higher education, a two-year course mixing vocational and general education (without preparation to higher education), and a ten-month course of pure vocational education (also open to adults). Vocational education is given in professional lyceum and vocational technical colleges.

Tertiary education
Osh State University

Higher education includes universities, academies, specialized higher education institutes and institutes. There are 54 tertiary education institutions: 33 public for 21 private. The gross enrolment rate in higher education was 12.5% in 2011/2012.

Universities deliver bachelor (Bakalavr) degree in four years, which allows students to pursue master (Magistr) programs, lasting two years. They also offer a “specialist degree” (specialist) in five (or six for medical and architecture studies) years. The specialist and the master degrees open the door to PhD programs (aspirantura).

Academies offer the same degrees in fields of scientific activity. An institute is usually a specialized branch of a university or an academy. Specialized higher education institutes are narrow profiles institutions.

There were criticisms about the competency of university lecturers in Kyrgyzstan: if a Master degree is theoretically required to teach at university, most teachers actually hold a Bachelor or even no degree at all.


You have to apply for a Kyrgyzstan eVisa through the official government website.

  1. Access the website here.
  2. Check whether you are eligible to apply for the Kyrgyzstan eVisa. There is a “Do I Need a Visa” section under the Information tab. Generally, if you are visa-exempt or eligible for the Visa on Arrival, then you can also apply for a Kyrgyzstan eVisa.
  3. Start the application. Click on the “Apply for a visa” button on the homepage.
  4. Attach the scanned copy of your passport and a passport-size picture.
  5. Pay the eVisa fee with your credit or debit card.
  6. Wait for the visa to be processed. This can take around a week. In the meantime, you will receive a confirmation on your email, and you can also check the status of your visa application.

IMPORTANT LINKS — public transport routes

2Gis — offline detailed city maps — offline detailed country maps

Local websites: — check flights on Manas International Airport’s website — find exchange rates on National Bank’s website — local news in English — public transportation routes — interactive map of Bishk